A 78-year-old male patient presented in the emergency department with a gradual deterioration of his general state of health during the preceding month. More specifically, he complained of progressive breathlessness, retrosternal pain radiating throughout his thoracic cavity, dizziness, syncopal episodes and cough, productive of small quantities of pink-tinted phlegm, mainly on exertion. At presentation, the patient appeared severely unwell. He was pale and he scored four in the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) breathlessness score.
Pulmonary auscultation revealed bilateral coarse crackles throughout the lung fields. Heart sounds were rhythmic, characterized by a loud ejection systolic murmur clearly audible in all auscultation areas and diminished heart sounds in the aortic area. His heart rate was 80 beats per minute and his blood pressure was 100/60 mmHg.
Free full text is