Sunday, April 15, 2018

Higher cigarette prices would help millions avoid poor health and extreme poverty

According to a study published in the these days in BMJ, a significant increase in prices of cigarette would aid millions of people at the global level to avoid poor health and extreme poverty.
Objective To examine the impact of a 50% increase in market prices of cigarettes on health, poverty, and financial protection.
Design Compartmental model study.
Setting 13 middle income countries, totalling two billion men.
Participants 500 million male smokers.
https://www.bmj.com/content/361/bmj.k1162?hootPostID=51c0bc6fd1849b19ae564a28dc77dea8
Main outcome measures Life years gained, averted treatment costs, number of men avoiding catastrophic healthcare expenditures and poverty, and additional tax revenue by income group.
Results A 50% increase in cigarette prices would lead to about 450 million years of life gained across the 13 countries from smoking cessation, with half of these in China. Across all countries, men in the bottom income group (poorest 20% of the population) would gain 6.7 times more life years than men in the top income group (richest 20% of the population; 155 v 23 million). The average life years gained from cessation for each smoker in the bottom income group was 5.1 times that of the top group (1.46 v 0.23 years). Of the $157bn (£113bn; €127bn) in averted treatment costs, the bottom income group would avert 4.6 times more costs than the top income group ($46bn v $10bn). About 15.5 million men would avoid catastrophic health expenditures in a subset of seven countries without universal health coverage. As result, 8.8 million men, half of them in the bottom income group, would avoid falling below the World Bank definition of extreme poverty. These 8.8 million men constitute 2.4% of people living in extreme poverty in these countries. In contrast, the top income group would pay twice as much as the bottom income group of the $122bn additional tax collected. Overall, the bottom income group would get 31% of the life years saved and 29% each of the averted disease costs and averted catastrophic health expenditures, while paying only 10% of the additional taxes.
Conclusions Higher prices of cigarettes provide more health and financial gains to the poorest 20% than to the richest 20% of the population. Higher excise taxes support the targets of the sustainable development goals on non-communicable diseases and poverty, and provides financial protection against illness.

What is already known on this topic

  • Higher excise taxes on tobacco are essential to reach the sustainable development goals to reduce mortality from non-communicable diseases by one third by 2030
  • Low income groups are more responsive to price increases than high income groups
  • There are few published studies of the distributional impact of higher tobacco taxes on health and financial outcomes

What this study adds

  • Despite differences in socioeconomic class and health finance arrangements a 50% increase in tobacco prices strongly favours those in the bottom income group for life years saved, out-of-pocket expenses from tobacco attributable treatment costs averted, and avoidance of catastrophic health expenditures or poverty
  • Higher tobacco excise taxes are a powerful but generally underused tool by most governments to reduce expenditures on treatment of diseases that are a major cause of income poverty
  • In 13 middle income countries studied, around 450 million life years would be saved from higher excise taxes, contributing substantially to the target of the sustainable development goals of a one third reduction in mortality from non-communicable diseases at ages 30-69 by 2030

8 comments:

  1. Colorectal cancer, cancer of the large intestine, is the fourth most common cancer in North America. Many cases of colorectal cancer are associated with low levels of physical activity and with diets that are low in fruits and vegetables. Individuals with a family history of the disease have a higher risk. I crumble with this disease for 5 years also with a lot of scaring thought in my head because i was just waiting for death every day of my life until My Son came to me in the hospital explaining to me that he has find a herbal healer from Nigeria to cure my Colo-Rectal Cancer,I was so shocked with the ideal also i was excited inside of me.My son asked me to let us give him a try because we have really heard a lot of scammer pretending to cure all sort of diseases with herbal medicine and some of them never get a positive result at the end of it all but we was very confident on this herbal doctor,like i said we give him a try and he sent me a herbal medicine to drink for three weeks, Sincerely I'm telling you today I' alive and healthy no more laying on sick bed,No more Colo-Rectal Cancer.I'm sharing this testimony on here for people who are sick to contact this Wonderful man,His name is Dr Itua.And His contact Whatsapp_+2348149277967____Email... drituaherbalcenter@gmail.com.He can cure those diseases like:Bladder cancerBreast cancerColorectal cancerKidney cancerLeukemiaLung cancerNon-Hodgkin lymphomaProstate cancerSkin cancerUterine cancerParkinson's,Alzheimer’s disease,Bechet’s disease,Crohn’s disease
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    Syndrome Fibrodysplasia Ossificans ProgresSclerosis,Seizures,Alzheimer's disease,Adrenocortical carcinoma.Asthma,Allergic diseases.Hiv_ Aids,Herpe ,Copd,Glaucoma., Cataracts,Macular degeneration,Cardiovascular disease,Lung disease.Enlarged prostate,Osteoporosis.
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    Love Spell,Diabetes.

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    Replies
    1. Good news this is to everyone out there with different health challenges, as I know there are still a lot of people suffering from different health issues and are therefore looking for solutions. I bring you Good news. There is a man called Dr Emmanuel  a herbal practitioner who helped cure me from HSV (2), i had suffered from this diseases for the past 5 years and i have spent so much money trying to survive from it. I got my healing by taking the herbal medicine Dr Emmanuel sent to me to drink for about 14 days . 3 days after completion of the dosage, I went for a medical checkup and I was tested free from HSV. all thanks to God for leading me to Dr Emmanuel who was able to cure me completely from this deadly diseases, I’m sharing this so that other people can know of this great healer called Dr Emmanuel because I got to know him through elizabeth who he cured from HIV. I was made to understand that he can cure several other deadly diseases and infections. Don’t die in ignorance or silent and don’t let that illness take your life. Contact Dr Emmanuel through his email traditionalherbalhealingcentre@gmail.com You can also whatsapp/call him on:+2348140033827 .He cure all forms of disease {1}HIV/AIDS {2}DIABETES {3}EPILEPSY {4} BLOOD CANCER {5} HPV {6} BRAIN TUMOR {7} HEPATITIS {8}COPD{9} SICKLE AND ANAEMIA.etc Be kind enough to share as you received.  

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  2. TRUE LIFE TESTIMONY,TRULY GOD IS GREAT...
    GENUINE CURE WITH PROVE.. doctorelvisakhidenor@tutanota.com

    HOW I GOT RID OF MY 6 YEARS GENITAL HERPES WITHIN 7 DAYS,GOD IS AWESOME!
    THIS IS REAL,PLEASE DON'T IGNORE.

    doctorelvisakhidenor@tutanota.com

    I caught genital herpes from my Ex Husband in 2012,he never told me about the virus. I had it for 6 years with so many outbreak,and it affected my life.. People think herpes is really a minor skin irritation herpes has a long term effects on health. The stigma attached to this virus by ignorant people is ridiculous. Most people have herpes in one form or another,i was first taking Antiviral medicines, such as acyclovir(Zovirax), famciclovir (Famvir), and valacyclovir (Valtrex), are recommended for treating primary genital herpes outbreaks. This medicine can be taken when an outbreak occurs. It can also be taken every day to help prevent outbreaks,it is not a total cure... I will like to tell everyone who is reading this my testimony on how i get rid of my genital herpes.I was reading a comment on the internet,and i saw a testimony posted by a young lady from USA that she got rid of her herpes with the help of Doctor Elvis,a Traditional Herbalist from Nigeria.So i was so happy when i saw that post,that his herbal medication Cure the virus totally.I quickly copied the herbal doctor email address and i email him within 30 minutes he respond to my mail.I explain things to him he told me not to worry that i should fill his herbal form which i did..The next day he told me that he has prepare the herbal medicine,that i should send him my home address that he want to send his HERBAL MEDICINE to me via DHL or FedEx that was how i got the herbal medication and i use it as i was instructed.After a week i went to see a Medical Doctor who confirmed my herpes was no more.When Mira a friend of mine saw my HOSPITAL TEST RESULT she was surprise and i also introduce her to Dr ELvis and she also got cured from same Genital herpes Virus.
    He also have a herbal cure for Following DISEASES,this is not scam is 100% Real.

    -GENITAL AND ORAL HERPES
    -HPV
    -HIV
    -DIABETES
    -EPSTEIN BARR
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    -WHOOPING COUGH
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    Contact him today and you will have a testimony..I GOT CURED OF 6 YEARS GENITAL HERPES BY DR Elvis ,CONTACT HIM FOR HELP TODAY...
    doctorelvisakhidenor@tutanota.com
    GOD IS TRULY GREAT.

    GOOD LUCK

    doctorelvisakhidenor@tutanota.com

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  3. Cigarette smoking is the number one risk factor for lung cancer,cigarette smoking is linked to about 80% to 90% of lung cancer deaths. Lung cancer is the most common form of the disease in the world and 90 percent of all cases are caused by cigarette smoking. About 10 to 15 percent of smokers develop lung cancer — although they often die of other smoking-related causes like heart disease, stroke or emphysema. lung cancer often goes unnoticed in its early stages. As the disease develops, a persistent cough  develop and chronic cough worsen. including chest pain, shortness of breath, hoarseness, bloody fluid coughed up from the respiratory tract, and frequent bouts of bronchitis or pneumonia. Sometimes all your bones begin pains or hurts you so bad, headaches, dizziness,I was so pissed off and tired of my life,after I developed lung cancer from cigarette smoking and I was at the point of death,through my boredom I was surfing the internet then  I came across re Dr James herbal mix. who said he can cure lung cancer with his herbal mix and got herbal cleansers from smoking too.I really thought it was a joke until I have gotta try. when I contacted him,he said yes he can. so little time I thought  about it and bought the herbal medicine which I took couple of week to get to me.within one week of taken it I started seeing  a lots of changers till  I was totally cured. his treatment is so unique,I never thought i will be able to be free from Lung Cancer and smoking treat too.He saved my life and I'm strong and healthy right now.You can speak with Him direct on his mobile/whatsapp/E-mail+2348152855846
    drjamesherbalmix@gmail.com

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  4. HOW I GOT CURED FROM HIV BY DR PADMAN.

    Greetings to everyone,i want to use this medium to thank the great spell caster called Dr Padman who helped to restored my relationship back to me,it happened that my ex lover decided to break up with me without any reason,saying that he don't love me anymore,this started to happen when my ex lover started keeping late night,and coming home late,i pleaded to him for several months but he refused to listen to my apology,so one faithful day i was browsing through the internet and i suddenly came across several testimonies of how Dr Padman helped so many people in bringing back their ex lover,so without wasting much time i contacted his https://padmanspell.com he told me that i shouldn't worry anymore that he must return back to me after he has cast a love spell for me that he will surely run back to me,i didn't doubt his words i obeyed his instruction and indeed after 24 hours my ex lover rush back to me and everything went back as it was in the beginning contact him today on his padmanlovespell@yahoo.com , https://twitter.com/padman_dr. https://padmanspell.com WhatsApp +19492293867

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  5. Good news this is to everyone out there with different health challenges, as I know there are still a lot of people suffering from different health issues and are therefore looking for solutions. I bring you Good news. There is a man called Dr Emmanuel  a herbal practitioner who helped cure me from HSV (2), i had suffered from this diseases for the past 5 years and i have spent so much money trying to survive from it. I got my healing by taking the herbal medicine Dr Emmanuel sent to me to drink for about 14 days . 3 days after completion of the dosage, I went for a medical checkup and I was tested free from HSV. all thanks to God for leading me to Dr Emmanuel who was able to cure me completely from this deadly diseases, I’m sharing this so that other people can know of this great healer called Dr Emmanuel because I got to know him through elizabeth who he cured from HIV. I was made to understand that he can cure several other deadly diseases and infections. Don’t die in ignorance or silent and don’t let that illness take your life. Contact Dr Emmanuel through his email traditionalherbalhealingcentre@gmail.com You can also whatsapp/call him on:+2348140033827 .He cure all forms of disease {1}HIV/AIDS {2}DIABETES {3}EPILEPSY {4} BLOOD CANCER {5} HPV {6} BRAIN TUMOR {7} HEPATITIS {8}COPD{9} SICKLE AND ANAEMIA.etc Be kind enough to share as you received.  

    ReplyDelete
  6. Am Laura Mildred by name, i was diagnosed with Herpes 4 years ago i lived in pain with the knowledge that i wasn't going to ever be well again i contacted so many herbal doctors on this issue and wasted a large sum of money but my condition never got better i was determined to get my life back so one day i saw Mr. Morrison Hansen post on how Dr. Emu saved him from Herpes with herbal medicine i contacted Dr. Emu on his Email: Emutemple@gmail.com we spoke on the issue i told him all that i went through and he told me not to worry that everything will be fine again so he prepared the medicine and send it to me and told me how to use it, after 14 days of usage I went to see the doctor for test,then the result was negative, am the happiest woman on earth now thanks to Dr. Emu God bless you. Email him at: Emutemple@gmail.com Whats-app or Call him: +2347012841542 

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  7. First, I want to complement this site administrator for creating this platform I frequently get cold sores(which lasts for 5-6 days on my lips and its painful both physically and mentally) .. As a bodybuilder, I basically get outbreak due to the daily pressure and heat in the body.. Recently I stumbled upon my salvation. I found a herbal remedy to cure hsv completely, in just 4weeks ..

    I got to know about Dr Utu after seeing a lady's testimony online. I reached the doctor and I ordered for herpes herbal medicine. He sent the herbs to me and I started making use of them. In just 2days, the cold sores are cleared. 4weeks after medication, I went to the hospital for test of cold sores and it was completely NEGATIVE.

    By following every prescription, i was able to cure my cold sore in less than 4weeks. 100% natural herbs no after effect.
    Note: Please do let others know if this work for you.
    The doctor's email is drutuherbalcure@gmail.com
    Note : follow all instructions accordingly..

    If you are sure that you have benefited from this African herbs be courageous to inform others.
    Thanks in advance

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