Sunday, April 15, 2018

Higher cigarette prices would help millions avoid poor health and extreme poverty

According to a study published in the these days in BMJ, a significant increase in prices of cigarette would aid millions of people at the global level to avoid poor health and extreme poverty.
Objective To examine the impact of a 50% increase in market prices of cigarettes on health, poverty, and financial protection.
Design Compartmental model study.
Setting 13 middle income countries, totalling two billion men.
Participants 500 million male smokers.
https://www.bmj.com/content/361/bmj.k1162?hootPostID=51c0bc6fd1849b19ae564a28dc77dea8
Main outcome measures Life years gained, averted treatment costs, number of men avoiding catastrophic healthcare expenditures and poverty, and additional tax revenue by income group.
Results A 50% increase in cigarette prices would lead to about 450 million years of life gained across the 13 countries from smoking cessation, with half of these in China. Across all countries, men in the bottom income group (poorest 20% of the population) would gain 6.7 times more life years than men in the top income group (richest 20% of the population; 155 v 23 million). The average life years gained from cessation for each smoker in the bottom income group was 5.1 times that of the top group (1.46 v 0.23 years). Of the $157bn (£113bn; €127bn) in averted treatment costs, the bottom income group would avert 4.6 times more costs than the top income group ($46bn v $10bn). About 15.5 million men would avoid catastrophic health expenditures in a subset of seven countries without universal health coverage. As result, 8.8 million men, half of them in the bottom income group, would avoid falling below the World Bank definition of extreme poverty. These 8.8 million men constitute 2.4% of people living in extreme poverty in these countries. In contrast, the top income group would pay twice as much as the bottom income group of the $122bn additional tax collected. Overall, the bottom income group would get 31% of the life years saved and 29% each of the averted disease costs and averted catastrophic health expenditures, while paying only 10% of the additional taxes.
Conclusions Higher prices of cigarettes provide more health and financial gains to the poorest 20% than to the richest 20% of the population. Higher excise taxes support the targets of the sustainable development goals on non-communicable diseases and poverty, and provides financial protection against illness.

What is already known on this topic

  • Higher excise taxes on tobacco are essential to reach the sustainable development goals to reduce mortality from non-communicable diseases by one third by 2030
  • Low income groups are more responsive to price increases than high income groups
  • There are few published studies of the distributional impact of higher tobacco taxes on health and financial outcomes

What this study adds

  • Despite differences in socioeconomic class and health finance arrangements a 50% increase in tobacco prices strongly favours those in the bottom income group for life years saved, out-of-pocket expenses from tobacco attributable treatment costs averted, and avoidance of catastrophic health expenditures or poverty
  • Higher tobacco excise taxes are a powerful but generally underused tool by most governments to reduce expenditures on treatment of diseases that are a major cause of income poverty
  • In 13 middle income countries studied, around 450 million life years would be saved from higher excise taxes, contributing substantially to the target of the sustainable development goals of a one third reduction in mortality from non-communicable diseases at ages 30-69 by 2030

6 comments:

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    ReplyDelete
    Replies
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      He can also cure the following diseases
      1. Herpes virus
      2. Chronic venous disease
      3. Gonorrhoea
      4. Hiv/aids
      5. Alzheimers disease
      6. Asepsis
      7. Cancer
      8. Cerebrospinal meingtitis
      9. Infertility problems
      10. Als/ebv
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      14. Hepatitis a,b,c
      15. Syphilis
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      17. Severe atopic dermatitis
      18. Leukaemia/lupus virus and many more....




      It's indeed a miracle I can't believe am finally free from herpes virus, am grateful to this powerful herbalist called Dr Perfect.
      I'm Chris Anderson from UK I was sick of herpes for 3 years it affected my relationship with my girlfriend when she find out I was having herpes she left me, I missed her so much because I loved her with all my heart and she always makes me happy she was the source of my happiness I wanted her to come back to me, so I took every treatment and drugs but none could cure my sickness I never lose hope because I believe I will surely get cured and be reunited with my girlfriend again so I went online to search for herpes cure and I came across a comment of a man on how this powerful herbalist cured him of herpes, I didn't hesitate I emailed him and explained my problem to him on how this herpes has affected my relationship he replied my mail and he asked for some information which I gave him and he prepared a herbal cure when he finished preparing the cure he sent it to me and instructed me on how to use it and I did it as I was instructed, five days later I couldn't find any sign of herpes that's was how I was free from herpes virus and he also did a love spell that brought back my ex girlfriend, this was the best thing that have ever happened to me am indeed grateful to Dr Perfect for the help he has rendered to me if you need help to cure your diseases or bring back your ex contact him and get your problems solved at solutiontoallproblems1@gmail.com
      You can also add him up on WhatsApp +12562513614

      He can also cure the following diseases
      1. Herpes virus
      2. Chronic venous disease
      3. Gonorrhoea
      4. Hiv/aids
      5. Alzheimers disease
      6. Asepsis
      7. Cancer
      8. Cerebrospinal meingtitis
      9. Infertility problems
      10. Als/ebv
      11. Hpv
      12. Enlargement of any type
      13. Getting back ex lover/divorce
      14. Hepatitis a,b,c
      15. Syphilis
      16. Arthritis
      17. Severe atopic dermatitis
      18. Leukaemia/lupus virus and many more....

      Delete
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  4. It's indeed a miracle I can't believe am finally free from herpes virus, am grateful to this powerful herbalist called Dr Perfect.
    I'm Chris Anderson from UK I was sick of herpes for 3 years it affected my relationship with my girlfriend when she find out I was having herpes she left me, I missed her so much because I loved her with all my heart and she always makes me happy she was the source of my happiness I wanted her to come back to me, so I took every treatment and drugs but none could cure my sickness I never lose hope because I believe I will surely get cured and be reunited with my girlfriend again so I went online to search for herpes cure and I came across a comment of a man on how this powerful herbalist cured him of herpes, I didn't hesitate I emailed him and explained my problem to him on how this herpes has affected my relationship he replied my mail and he asked for some information which I gave him and he prepared a herbal cure when he finished preparing the cure he sent it to me and instructed me on how to use it and I did it as I was instructed, five days later I couldn't find any sign of herpes that's was how I was free from herpes virus and he also did a love spell that brought back my ex girlfriend, this was the best thing that have ever happened to me am indeed grateful to Dr Perfect for the help he has rendered to me if you need help to cure your diseases or bring back your ex contact him and get your problems solved at solutiontoallproblems1@gmail.com
    You can also add him up on WhatsApp +12562513614

    He can also cure the following diseases
    1. Herpes virus
    2. Chronic venous disease
    3. Gonorrhoea
    4. Hiv/aids
    5. Alzheimers disease
    6. Asepsis
    7. Cancer
    8. Cerebrospinal meingtitis
    9. Infertility problems
    10. Als/ebv
    11. Hpv
    12. Enlargement of any type
    13. Getting back ex lover/divorce
    14. Hepatitis a,b,c
    15. Syphilis
    16. Arthritis
    17. Severe atopic dermatitis
    18. Leukaemia/lupus virus and many more....

    ReplyDelete
  5. It's indeed a miracle I can't believe am finally free from herpes virus, am grateful to this powerful herbalist called Dr Perfect.
    I'm Chris Anderson from UK I was sick of herpes for 3 years it affected my relationship with my girlfriend when she find out I was having herpes she left me, I missed her so much because I loved her with all my heart and she always makes me happy she was the source of my happiness I wanted her to come back to me, so I took every treatment and drugs but none could cure my sickness I never lose hope because I believe I will surely get cured and be reunited with my girlfriend again so I went online to search for herpes cure and I came across a comment of a man on how this powerful herbalist cured him of herpes, I didn't hesitate I emailed him and explained my problem to him on how this herpes has affected my relationship he replied my mail and he asked for some information which I gave him and he prepared a herbal cure when he finished preparing the cure he sent it to me and instructed me on how to use it and I did it as I was instructed, five days later I couldn't find any sign of herpes that's was how I was free from herpes virus and he also did a love spell that brought back my ex girlfriend, this was the best thing that have ever happened to me am indeed grateful to Dr Perfect for the help he has rendered to me if you need help to cure your diseases or bring back your ex contact him and get your problems solved at solutiontoallproblems1@gmail.com
    You can also add him up on WhatsApp +12562513614

    He can also cure the following diseases
    1. Herpes virus
    2. Chronic venous disease
    3. Gonorrhoea
    4. Hiv/aids
    5. Alzheimers disease
    6. Asepsis
    7. Cancer
    8. Cerebrospinal meingtitis
    9. Infertility problems
    10. Als/ebv
    11. Hpv
    12. Enlargement of any type
    13. Getting back ex lover/divorce
    14. Hepatitis a,b,c
    15. Syphilis
    16. Arthritis
    17. Severe atopic dermatitis
    18. Leukaemia/lupus virus and many more....

    ReplyDelete